The material may be whole cells or molecular such as a protein or a colloid, and is selectively adsorbed or attached to the surface of gas bubbles rising through a liquid, to be concentrated or separated and finally removed by skimming. Typical agents used in precipitation are acids and bases, salts such as sodium and ammonium sulphates, organic solvents such as methanol, chilled ethanol and acetone, non-ionic polymers such as polyethylene glycol PEG , and some protein binding dyes such as triazine dyes. These include: physico mechanical methods such as liquid shear, solid shear, agitation with abrasives, freeze thawing, and ultrasonication. The chemical methods include usage of detergents, osmotic shock, alkali treatment, and enzyme treatment.
How Does the Animal Cell Work? Learn About the Functioning of a Cell in this Guide
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Osmosis and Cells: How Osmosis Works in Cell Membrane Functions
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