Patrick is a cultural sociologist specialising in social and cultural identity. His current research and writing continues a longstanding focus upon interlocking themes found within aspects of British hip hop, bass and spoken word cultures. He is also working on the activity and self-presentation of cultural intermediaries and marketers who operate at the border between ostensive youth subcultures and commercial brands. Patrick has a particular interest in forms of qualitative enquiry and theory that work with existential, phenomenological and critically realist concepts and concerns. His current teaching spans social problems and divisions, social theory, the sociology of the everyday, and digital life and its discontents.
Study: Rap Music Linked to Alcohol, Violence
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Pushing the boundaries for artistic expression has always been a part of popular music. However, the drive for profits may also be pushing the envelope of what is acceptable. What has changed is that popular music lyrics have become much more explicit. Hip hop and other genres have received criticism for lyrics with graphic references to drugs, sex, violence, and hate aimed at women, minorities, gays and lesbians.
Like many of you, I've done a lot of thinking about how we can better prepare students to be thoughtful, responsible, and critical consumers and creators. While I don't have all the answers, I've come to one conclusion: Media-literacy education must deal with YouTube. What's more, YouTube is a unique beast and can't just be tacked on. It has its own celebrities, culture, norms, and memes and has even given rise to the dreaded " YouTube voice. One of these -- the video essay -- is something I think can be a great tool for media-literacy education.
Reggaeton finds its origins in American hip-hop and rap as well as in Dominican merengue and Jamaican reggae. Due to its lyrics and visuals, it has traditionally been understood as an example of the ubiquitous gender inequality that permeates mainstream culture. The heteronormative dynamics of the dance and the dressing codes associated with the genre construct it as an embodiment of systemic violence toward women. The origins of reggaeton, however, provide us with a wider perspective on this issue. The context in which reggaeton is meant to exist and operate is key for its codification.